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October 19, 2014

Bach Cantatas (53): Trinity XX

The Twentieth Sunday after Trinity. The cantatas for this day are based on the parable of the marriage of the King's son, for which invitations are sent out but largely ignored because people are too busy; when finally guests do come, one person lacks a wedding garment and is severely punished. This parable may be mixed with the more practical message of the Epistle to avoid bad company and bad habits.

There are three cantatas for this Sunday.

Readings:
Ephesians 5:15–21, Avoid bad company: "walk circumspectly, ... filled with the Spirit"
Matthew 22:1–14, parable of the great banquet (marriage of the king's son)

References:
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Cantatas:
  • Ach! ich sehe, itzt, da ich zur Hochzeit gehe, BWV 162, 3 November 1715 or 25 October 1716
    Aria (bass): Ach! ich sehe, itzt, da ich zur Hochzeit gehe
    Recitative (tenor): O großes Hochzeitfes

    Aria (soprano): Jesu, Brunnquell aller Gnaden
    Recitative (alto): Mein Jesu, laß mich nicht
    Duet aria (alto, tenor): In meinem Gott bin ich erfreut
    Chorale: Ach, ich habe schon erblicket

    ("Ah! I see, now, when I go to the wedding") An early cantata written in 1715 in Weimar on a text by Salomon Franck. Although the narrative is based on the notion of a wedding, it is not at all joyous, but focuses on the worries of the invitees that they may be unworthy (lacking a wedding garment). Bach performed the cantata again in 1723 in Leipzig and then added a part for a corno da tirarsi, a rare Baroque wind instrument thought to have been similar to the slide trumpet (tromba da tirarsi). This instrument is used in the opening movement, an austere solo aria for bass. The slide trumpet adds a haunting note to the contemplative music. Not all parts for the embellished soprano aria have come down to us, so in some performances parts for a flauto traverso and oboe d'amore are reconstructed. Although the consoling duet for alto and tenor is only accompanied by the continuo, this seems complete. The cantata closes with a short chorale on a beautiful melody by Johann Rosenmüller from 1652.
  • Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele, BWV 180, 22 October 1724
    Chorus: Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele
    Aria (tenor): Ermuntre dich, dein Heiland klopft
    Recitative and chorale (soprano): Wie teuer sind des heilgen Mahles Gaben! – Ach, wie hungert mein Gemüte
    Recitative (alto): Mein Herz fühlt in sich Furcht und Freude
    Aria (soprano): Lebens Sonne, Licht der Sinnen
    Recitative (bass): Herr, laß an mir dein treues Lieben
    Chorale: Jesu, wahres Brot des Lebens


    ("Adorn yourself, o dear soul") Based on the beloved chorale melody "Schmücke dich, o liebe Seele" by Johann Franck and its associated melody by Johann Crüger. A joyful cantata in a swinging rhythm. The first movement is a chorale fantasy where two recorders as well as oboe and English horn dance lightly over a gigue-like figure in the strings. The following tenor aria is accompanied by a virtuoso flute, while the knocking from the line "Arouse yourself: your Savior knocks" is humorously depicted in the bass line. The soprano recitative and arioso feature a violoncello piccolo (today often played on the viola), playing a lively figuration beneath an ornamented version of the chorale. In the alto recitative the two recorders appear again and this is followed by a wonderful dancing soprano aria with the full instrumental ensemble, celebrating the joy of communion with Christ. The bass then asks for a rekindling of the fire of faith before a final chorale, one of Bach's greatest chorale harmonizations, brings this wonderful cantata to a satisfying end.
  • Ich geh und suche mit Verlangen, BWV 49, 3 November 1726
    Sinfonia
    Aria (bass): Ich geh und suche mit Verlangen
    Recitative (soprano, bass): Mein Mahl ist zubereit
    Aria (soprano): Ich bin herrlich, ich bin schön
    Recitative (soprano, bass): Mein Glaube hat mich selbst so angezogen
    Aria (bass) + Chorale (soprano): Dich hab ich je und je geliebet – Wie bin ich doch so herzlich froh


    ("(I go and seek with longing") A solo cantata for soprano and bass, a dialogue between the Soul and Jesus, her bridegroom, based on the parable of the wedding feast. The opening sinfonia is an arrangement for organ of the third movement of Bach's E Major harpsichord concerto. The bass as the vox Christi then sings the words of Jesus, based on a passage from the Song of Songs, in an opening aria that is full of longing. The aria is accompanied by an organ obbligato. Next follow a duet recitative and a soprano aria, the latter accompanied by oboe d'amore, viola and continuo. With the words "I am glorious, I am beautiful," the bride reflects on her beauty. This is one of the most impressive arias Bach wrote. After some more dialogue, the cantata is closed by a duet. While the bass sings of his happiness about the consummation of the marriage, the soprano intones a verse of the chorale, “Wie schön leuchtet der Morgenstern.” This is accompanied by quite magical organ music.
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